Hydrochloroflurocarbons Phase Out Management Plan (HPMP)
India’s building sector currently consumes close to 40 percent of the nation’s electricity, and its energy consumption is expected to double by 2040. The building sector anticipates rapid growth due to urbanization, accelerated by the government’s Smart Cities and Housing for All programmes. Space cooling and refrigeration account for significant amount of building energy consumption. In warmer cities like New Delhi, air-conditioning can comprise half of the city’s power demand in the summer months. Demand for air conditioners is expected to grow from 3.8 million a year to 6.2 million in 2020-21 (increase of 63% Cumulative Annual Growth Rate (CAGR) (Ozone Cell, 2017).
This rising demand for cooling can ramp up electricity usage by 80% globally between 2010 and 2100. India’s cooling industry use ozone-depleting substances (ODS) such as hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs), which are controlled by the Montreal Protocol. HCFCs and their alternatives (e.g. HFCs) are also potent greenhouse gases (GHGs), contributing significantly to global warming. Increasing real estate and infrastructure development across India is leading to higher demand for HCFC and HFC-based solutions. While the building sector is one of the largest greenhouse gas emissions contributors, it also offers the most cost-effective and substantial opportunities for energy efficiency. Energy efficiency in buildings is critical to implement HCFC phaseout from buildings.
India’s role in the Kigali Amendment
In 2016, the signatories to the Montreal Protocol adopted the Kigali Amendment, which aims to phase down HFCs and stresses the importance of combining refrigerant management with the energy-efficiency aspects of cooling. As a signatory to the Montreal Protocol and the Kigali Amendment, India has committed to freezing HFC use by 2028 and phasing down HFCs by 85 per cent by 2047. Globally, the agreement is expected to mitigate HFC use by 85 percent by 2045, causing a reduction of emissions equivalent to approximately 70 billion tonnes of CO2 globally.
HCFC Phase-out Management Plan (HPMP) in India
The Ministry of Environment, Forests and Climate Change (MoEF&CC) through its Ozone Cell implements the HCFC Phase-out Management Plan (HPMP) as per the reduction schedule agreed with the Protocol. It aims to phase out use of HCFCs by switching to non-ozone depleting by 2030. The Government of India has now launched Stage II of HPMP for the 2017-2023 period which has a strong focus on HCFC phaseout in building sector. To implement the building sector interventions under HPMP the MoEF&CC has collaborated with EESL. Ozone cell, MoEF&CC through EESL will mainstream HCFC issues with Energy Efficiency and building sector which forms part of the non-investment component of India’s HPMP stage – II.